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HR & Recruitment Glossary

The most complete HR glossary and recruitment terms to help you navigate your day-to-day work.


An active candidate is a person who is currently at some point in the recruiting process and is still being considered. Active candidates are managed through an agency or in-house team’s applicant tracking system (ATS).

Abandon rate is an HR metric that measures the number of job applicants who start the job application, but who do not actually finish and submit the completed information. By monitoring this measure, companies can collect data and, in effect, develop and refine their job application process’ usability and ease.

An Affirmative Action Plan uses statistical analyses to ensure that an employer has created or is creating a workforce that authentically reflects the demographics of their relevant skilled labor pool by providing equitable access to employment opportunities for specific protected classes (minorities, veterans, women, and people with disabilities).

An applicant pool refers to a complete list of individuals who have applied for a specific role. Recruiters and in-house hiring teams review this pool of candidates and create a shortlist of potential individuals to submit for an interview.
Accessibility is the standard and practice of an organisation in providing services, facilities, accommodation, and employment for disabled people. (or for individuals with disabilities or disabled individuals).

An Applicant Tracking System is an online platform used by recruiters and in-house HR teams to screen candidates during the recruitment process. The platform allows applicants to access the system and have their progress monitored from work application to onboarding. It also acts as a CRM (Customer Relationship Management) tool to enable recruiters to keep an eye on the application journey of each candidate and maintain communication at each hiring stage. An ATS may parse or migrate data from submitted candidate resumes via online job boards that are added to the central database. A good ATS can greatly enhance the hiring process for the candidate, decreasing the amount of time it takes to make a hire and increasing the recruiter’s productivity allowing them to fill more jobs. Newer platforms integrate third-party providers to bring a greater degree of flexibility to the core system, from background checks to payroll services.

Attrition means reducing employees through organic means, such as resignation or even retirement.
Active job searching occurs when someone is seeking out employment. Active job seekers can post their resumes to job boards, work with recruiting agencies from third parties and network to find their next position.
Applicant flow data refers to hiring records, such as promotions and other work related actions, used to monitor selection and employment practices.
Applicant tracking is the administration of past and current candidates through resumes and other information provided in the application process. Typically, tracking is conducted within one organised database (applicant tracking software) and can be used to mine data and ensure consistent record keeping.
Absenteeism refers to an employee not being present at work during their scheduled hours. Employees may take a leave or not report to work for a multitude of reasons including illness, accidents, and low motivation as well as dissatisfaction with one’s work.
Applicants are job seekers who submitted their information, most often in the form of a resume, cover letter, and/or list of references, hoping to obtain a place within that specific organisation.
An assessment centre is a facility where the aptitude and competence of applicants are tested in order to assess their suitability for specific types of work.
Applicant files contain all documentation submitted by a prospective applicant when applying for a job. The most common documents included in an applicant file are resume, cover letter, and list of references.
The Aptitude and Ability Tests are designed to evaluate the logical reasoning or thinking capabilities of a candidate. They consist of a number of multiple-choice questions and are strictly timed.
Acqui-hiring is the process of acquiring a company to hire its employees, without necessarily having an interest in or continued activity of its existing goods and services. In the tech startup industry, the acqui-hiring strategy has been most popular.
Ageism is prejudice or discrimination mostly caused by the age of a person. Refusing to hire or promote employees of age 40 or older automatically qualify as age discrimination, as do the age-based privileges of firing, limiting compensation, job assignments, benefits, training or conditions, terms of employment.
Analysis of the Availability is the method of recognizing the number of members affiliated to a minority or a disadvantaged group who are eligible for any position within the organization.


During an interview, behavioral questions are those asked to evaluate how candidates would respond in any particular scenario and what that answer implies about them. Behavioural questions are typically answered using the ‘CAR’ method: Context, Action, Result or the ‘STAR’ method: Situation, Task, Action, Result. They usually start with the interviewer asking “tell me about a time…” or “give me an example of…”.
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) is a technique for examining the efficiency and unique behavioral habits of employees. BARS is anchored to numerical ratings and structured to provide the employee appraisal process with the advantages of both qualitative and quantitative results.
Bereavement leave is leave taken by an employee due to the death of another individual, usually a close relative. Employers may retain deprivation leave policies or practices at their discretion, and may be obliged to comply with their defined policy or practice under some circumstances.
Blue collar workers are employees whose main duties require manual labour and the use of physical prowess to create or deliver a product.
Bumping is a senior employee’s right to substitute a less senior employee in a given position or assignment for which both employees are eligible. Bumping is a technique that many businesses use in reserving a pool of talent during downsizing.
Back pay is an accrued salary and benefits including bonuses, overtime, etc., to which an employee is entitled either due to a retroactive rise or is terminated prior to the last pay date expected. For example, if an employer wrongly fires an employee, the employee can owe back wages for the time during which he/she was not allowed to work.
A balanced scorecard is a performance metric used in strategic people management to recognise and improve the multiple internal functions of a business and its resulting external results. It is used to measure and provide the organisations with feedback for better organisational decision-making. In doing so, the system connects the dots between big picture strategy elements such as the company’s mission, vision, core values, strategic focus areas, and the more operational elements such as objectives, KPIs (key performance indicators), targets and initiatives.
The base wage rate is the minimum salary an employee earns, minus the benefits , allowances, incentives and bonuses. Base pay is purely financial and can be expressed as an hourly rate, monthly or annual salary.
Behavioural Risk Management refers to alleviating risks arising from the behaviour of employees and organisations. Individual risks involve employees ‘and managers’ behaviours and how the decisions they make and the actions they take can open up the business to risk. Organisational behaviour is the organisation’s collective activities that may increase risk.
A Benchmark Job has a basic, coherent set of responsibilities from one organisation to another. As a result, data is bestowed in valid and reliable salary surveys. To classify a benchmark job, data from appropriate salary surveys are compiled to determine the median salary rate for the job.
Benefits are non-financial compensation provided to an employee as part of the employment contract. Such benefits may include health insurance, dental insurance, vision care, life insurance, paid time off, sick leave, child care, wellness programs and retirement plans, depending on the company.
Blended workforce is the planned use of a diverse workforce. These are the employees on varied contracts including permanent full-time staff, part-time, temporary workers, contractors, and freelancers. This strategy is designed to fulfill the strategic and tactical needs of the workforce as an agile organisation.
Business casual attire is a prevalent dress code used by organisations typically regarded as a comfortable yet professional in style. This is conservative, clean-cut, which usually entails employees to wear dress pants or khakis, button down, and collared shirts or blouses, dresses or skirts, and dress shoes.
Benchmarking is the measurement and comparison of an organisation’s HR policies and practices with other organisations within a respective industry. Benchmarking aims at setting baselines, establishing best practices, finding areas for change, and developing a competitive ambience within the organisation.
HR departments use the Bradford formula to calculate the impact of absences of employees on the organisation. It’s based on the theory that short, frequent, unplanned absences are more disruptive than longer absences to the organisation. You can calculate an employee’s Bradford Factor using the Bradford Formula, which is S2 x D = B. ‘S’ is the total number of separate absences, ‘D’ is the total number of days’ absence and ‘B’ is the Bradford Factor score.
Workplace Bullying is frequent, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons by one or more perpetrators. The abusive behavior may be aggressive, insulting, humiliating, or bullying. It can also be defined as interference with work or sabotage, or verbal assault.
A business continuity plan is the critical information that an organisation needs to continue to operate during an unplanned operational disruption. This plan ensures the protection of personnel and assets as well as mitigates the risk to the organisation and its people.
Bring your own device is the policy of businesses permitting or requiring their employees to use their personal devices such as phones or laptops during work. It is a growing trend intended to inspire workers while at the same time saving the businesses’ costs.
Baby boomers are the generation of people who were born following World War II, between 1946 and 1964. Baby Boomers are typically characterized as dedicated, having a strong work ethic, goal-centered, mentally focused and disciplined in the workplace. There are 75 million Baby Boomers retired or nearing their retirement causing a very large gap in talent for employers worldwide.

A hiring manager or a manager of that department conducts behavioral-based interviews with the purpose of determining how the candidate being interviewed acted in specific employment-related situations. Past performance predicts future performance is the logic behind this interview method.

Business Process Outsourcing (commonly abbreviated to BPO) refers to the process whereby a company utilizes the services of a specialist third-party company in order to manage a key business function. Such BPO may be done for a number of purposes. Most frequently it is orchestrated by the corporation outsourcing its business process to save on cost.

This can also arise when a business needs professional support without having the resources internally for it or when a business can not assign the required resources due to narrow market availability.

In recruitment terms, BPO is often also referred to as RPO, see further details here for Recruitment Process Outsourcing.

Background checks are typically done on candidates seeking employment by the company conducting the recruitment process and these checks are a mandatory requirement in many countries before making any candidate a job offer.

There are varying degrees of difficulty depending on the type of background check that can be conducted, depending on what information is to be gleaned from the search. For example, the higher the position that an organisation is hiring for, the more complicated the background check would be because it needed more comprehensive knowledge about the history and experience of the senior candidate.

Common checks in Australia include Criminal Background Check, Identity Verification Check, academic reference check; employment history check, and driving history check.

A Boolean Search is a type of search performed using some terms known as Boolean Operators. The most frequently utilized words as Boolean Operators are ‘and,’ ‘or’ and ‘not.’ These three keywords are used to describe the relationship between two terms and are widely used in search engines to control the search results.

Using ‘and’ in a Boolean Search leads to the search results where both words are included in the search phrase, such as ‘Sydney and hotels.’ Using ‘not’ isolates one category of search results and is sometimes included when there is a lot of overlap between two terms, or where one category of search results is likely to indicate that the consumer needs to be removed from it, such as ‘Sydney not hotels’.

The use of ‘or’ will result in the broadest category of search results. For example, ‘Sydney or hotels’, as this Boolean Operator delivers any search results where either term is used.

The term Boolean Search was named after George Boole, who invented the concept in a mathematical context.


Change management is a strategic process that helps organisations and their people transition and adapts via the use of tools, skills, and best practices to new business processes, organisational structure, or cultural changes.
A contract recruiter, also known as a headhunter, is a talent acquisition professional who works on a short-term contract basis. There is a contract, or exclusive recruiting agreement, between the recruiter and their client. The contract recruiter works solely with the company during the contract period on behalf of the client, recruiting, interviewing, and engaging with applicants.
A contract employee is hired for a specific job at a rate of pay determined by the employer and agreed upon by the contract employee. A contract employee does not become a regular addition to the staff and is not considered a permanent employee.
Career websites are designed to enable employers to post their open positions to an active pool of candidates. Candidates may then evaluate and apply to positions in one place that attracts them, rather than checking several job sites.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the methods an organisation uses to demonstrate their commitment to making a positive impact on the society in which they operate. These efforts can take the form of formal CSR programs, volunteer efforts, and philanthropy. Larger companies, for the good of shareholders and the broader community, appear to have a complete year-long plan recorded. The benefits of having a CSR program include increased brand awareness and retention of staff, increased customer loyalty, and a favorable impact on financial performance.
Candidate centric-recruiting is a talent-acquisition strategy aimed at placing the applicant first with the intention of developing long-term partnerships rather than only hiring for current openings. Companies should streamline their applicant path to introduce centric-recruiting and cultivate a good image and to have consistent feedback and encourage consistency in the process as well as work to keep the talent pool warm.
Core Competencies refer to the knowledge, skill, or ability that contributes to the successful completion of a job task. All employees use a multitude of competencies to fulfill their job.
Culture-Add refers to a candidate’s ability to contribute to the cultural identity of an organisation which takes a different approach to the conventional culture-fit recruiting process. Although culture fit continues to play an important role, its limitations are now well known. As a hiring approach, culture-adding ensures that consideration is also given to what a candidate can offer an organisation in terms of diversity, particularly skills and unique experiences. Providing the same consideration for both culture-fit and culture-adding helps the hired candidate to succeed but also enhances the overall team.
The term culture-fit refers to the ability of an individual to adapt to an organisation’s core value system, approaches, and behaviours. There is concern that recruiting for culture-fit will result in an organisation leaning towards uniformity whereby each subsequent hire has to match the previous one. In many ways, this hiring approach becomes a personification of unconscious bias.

Culture-fit questions are those asked during an interview to gauge whether a candidate will successfully fit into an organisation’s culture. These questions tend to be open-ended and can touch on the candidate’s view of management best practice, the environment in which they are able to be their most productive, and their relationships with their peers. More emphasis is placed on culture fit than on the ability of the candidate to perform the role. The belief is that a person can be trained, but their ability to work well within a team can result in poor job satisfaction, low productivity and a potentially dangerous environment.

Candidate assessment refers to the process an employer undertakes to determine whether they are suitable for the role they’ve applied for. The assessment can take several forms including a review of the candidate’s resume and cover letter, a pre-selection process, a structured interview, various online resources including skills & behavioural assessment and personality assessments as well as social media evaluations. The complexity and seniority of a role can determine to what extent these assessments are included in the hiring process.
Casual employment refers to a situation where an employee is only guaranteed work when necessary and there is no expectation that more work will occur in the future. A casual employee is only compensated for time worked so they do not receive holiday pay and sick time or other benefits from the employer.
Company culture is a term used to describe the internal atmosphere which constitutes an organisation’s personality. It supports all company principles and attitudes, which can also be inferred with each new hire, evolving over time. Company culture has become a selling point for organisations who seek to differentiate themselves from the competition with some companies such as Google and Facebook known for their company cultures. There are several types of company culture according to the Harvard Business Review including Caring, Purpose, Learning, Enjoyment, Results, Authority, Safety, and Order.
A counter offer can be made to a candidate who has a competing job offer with another employer. Situations, where a counter offer is usually used, is when the employer regards an employee as highly desirable because of his career, business, and/or technological skills.
Candidate Engagement refers to the extent an applicant who has had a good experience with a recruiter, an organisation, or an in-house recruiting team. Recruiters are aware that a candidate’s level of commitment can affect whether they will accept a role, refer someone else to a role or company or rate them positively. Modern ATSs such as JobAdder now come with integrations such as AskNicely and RecruiterInsider that allow recruiters to gain valuable feedback from candidates to help improve their hiring processes.
Candidate experience is how applicants perceive processes for the procurement, recruitment, interviewing, hiring, and on-boarding of employers. HR professionals, namely Recruiters, now strive more than ever to provide positive touchpoints with candidates throughout their entire candidate journey so as to improve the employer image, brand reputation in the community and their industry.

Customer Relationship Management or CRM refers to a company’s task of administering the relationship they have with their customers, both recent and potential. Customer Relationship Management Systems or CRM Systems are the infrastructures that allow an organisation to manage the relationships between its workers and clients.

CRM Systems are a key business tool that is used to optimise this relationship with customers and to reach them more effectively, in order to retain current clients and attract new ones, automate sales, help marketing, and sales teams and support other business divisions.
CRM systems are a robust data collection and review method that enables the exploration of new market opportunities. Such programs often provide the useful experience of consumer engagement, which is used to shape plans for preventive issues and to provide incentives for staff to upsell additional goods to consumers, where applicable.

Some common features of Customer Relationship Management Software or CRM Software include:

  • Customer data retention and management features
  • Integrated communication features, that improve communication with customers via phone, email, chat and social media
  • Workflow and task management features
  • Reporting features, specifically sales activity reporting, forecasting and tracking

In recruitment terms, CRM is often incorporated in a Recruitment Management System, or RMS, as CRM accounts for a remarkable part of RMS alongside other features specific to recruitment. See more on a Recruitment Management System here.

Content Management Systems or CMS are programs that a company employs to help its employees store, maintain, change, distribute, and publish content. As ‘content’ is a very broad term and encompasses many different kinds of material, CMS is equally diverse and scalable to adapt to the content requirements of any given company. A key function of CMS is that they permit staff to manage workflow and tasks that are shared between myriad users.

Content Management Systems are typically used to assist staff working with the below two types of content:

Content is published on websites, which is usually external-facing content

Document content, for example, reports, created for a company’s use internally or with their clients
Content Management Systems aims to improve efficiency by allowing valuable company information to be stored, managed, and manipulated. With that effect, CMS and Contact Management Software have similar purposes. Nonetheless, CMS is usually more sophisticated as it has more complex functionality. See more on Contact Management Software here.

Candidate management relates to managing, developing, and sustaining applicant relationships.
For both active and passive applicants, applicant management is a crucial component of the position of any recruiter.

The relationships that recruiters build with candidates enable them to develop a diverse pool of talent and exercise reasonable judgment when situating candidates forward for job vacancies. Eventually, candidate management allows recruiters to make better matches between candidates and clients.

To establish a relationship with candidates, it is vital for recruiters to allocate one-on-one time. The moment these relationships are established and a recruiter has a strong and well-built talent pipeline, their candidate management activities can be automated using a good CRM System.

Consultants are independent professional consultants who are paid (on contract) to determine the needs of a company. They also provide guidance about what to do, what methods to use, and procedures to be used to help accomplish organisational objectives. For the independent contractor, the company does not withhold taxes. Employment and labor laws also do not apply to independent contractors.

A cover letter is an evaluation document that offers supplementary details on the skills and experience stated in the applicant’s resume. It is usually no more than one page and provides the prospective employer with further details of the candidate’s qualifications as well as their desire to work for the employer.
A careers page is stationed on the website of an employer and contains accessible positions and other job information such as compensation and benefits, the mission and vision as well as the business philosophy of its organisation.

A compensation package is the mixture of wages and fringe benefits obtained by an employee in exchange for the employment of an employer. In addition to base salary and health benefits, a compensation package also includes on-site amenities, gym memberships, stock options, vacation, leaves, retirement, flexibility, and other employee perks.

Continuous Candidate Engagement (CCE) is a candidate-centered recruitment model that makes use of technology tools and techniques to engage candidates at the right time, the right place and in the right way from the moment the employer-candidate relationship begins.
Cost per hire is a metric used by recruiters to calculate the average amount related to filling a job. This is calculated by adding the total internal and external recruiting costs and dividing this by the total number of hires within a particular period of time. Costs can include salaries, agency fees, advertising costs or even applicant-related expenses such as relocation or travel costs. Reducing this metric is a key KPI and should be monitored frequently to identify whether a specific change results in a lower cost per hire rate.
A candidate is a person who is searching for a job or is eligible for a job. An applicant can be active, meaning one is driven and pursuing a job. He can be passive as well, which means he is not actively seeking employment.
Candidate sourcing refers to a recruiter’s job of identifying, evaluating, and recruiting the most appropriate candidate for a given position. Candidate sourcing may involve a number of steps including but not limited to: searching for their current database, searching for social media accounts, sourcing via internal or external referrals, searching for candidates within the organisation, posting a job and sourcing suitable candidates from those that respond, using one’s network to find candidates, and among others. Candidate sourcing strategies differ from recruiter to recruiter and what may work for one job may be unsuccessful for another.
Coaching is a method designed to help motivated people make improvements that will boost their professional growth. Coaching can benefit both employees and organisation.
The candidate journey refers to the process a job seeker goes through. This includes Awareness, Consideration, Interest, Application, Selection, and Hire. The first stage is where the applicant is aware of the organisation through its employer mark. By investigating the business as well as any rivals, the candidate may then take it further. Depending on the strength of the employer brand and offers of the business, the applicant can demonstrate interest by interacting with the business before submitting an application for an open position. At this point, before being hired, the applicant passes through the selection process.
A candidate portal is a stable, interactive network that enables applicants to apply for open positions, upload personal and professional details and accept or decline job offers.
Collaborative hiring refers to the team members’ effort to fill a vacancy in collaboration with a hiring manager. Popularised in Silicon Valley, it offers an alternative approach to the traditional hiring process, whereby a team has input into who is hired. This input can extend to the entire hiring process, from sourcing candidates to interviewing them and providing feedback. Research shows that this strategy can be highly successful for a variety of reasons, ranging from assuring current team buy-in to eliminating bias elements and increasing retention.
Competency-based interviews are an interview style that is often used to determine the main competencies of a candidate, particularly when it is difficult to choose on the basis of technical merit. Competency-based interview questions are aimed at finding out how an applicant has used different competencies in their past experience and how they handle issues, tasks, and challenges.
C-Suite denotes to the organisation’s highest level executives. The typical C-Suite senior management titles are Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Operations Officer (COO), and Chief Financial Officer (CFO).
A Career Fair, also known as a Job Fair or Career Expo, is an event that offers an opportunity for students and employers to encounter each other, develop professional relationships, and discuss future internships and part-time or full-time opportunities.
Candidate personas are a research-driven approach to understand an organisation’s target talent audience. Candidate personas are shaped by identifying the attributes, skills, and qualities that make up the ideal recruit, and in effect, they help direct the hiring process.

Contingent recruitment is a type of recruitment that involves recruitment being carried out for companies on a contingent or project-by-project basis.

The primary difference between contingent recruitment and retained recruitment is that if the recruiter successfully positions a candidate in an open vacancy, the contingent recruiter will only get paid a placement fee. Look here for more on retained recruitment.

The recruiter works on a retained basis. However, he is paid a flat rate for their services and their recruitment income is not dictated by the outcome of individual placements. This arrangement is usually put in place because it is convenient for the company working with the retained recruiter, or because the skills and success rate of the retained recruiter are considered to be higher than those of their contingent recruiter counterparts.

Because of the higher degree of risk involved for contingent recruiters with no guaranteed fee for their recruiting services, contingent recruiters are also driven to forward applicants to an organisation quicker than retained recruiters to try and get a higher rate of success.

Contact Management Software is a software that is dedicated to depositing a company’s information about their contacts.
This information is characterised by being effortlessly searchable and is the fundamental information needed to populate a contact’s profile. Examples of information mostly commonly stored in Contact Management Software are:

  • Customer / client names
  • Phone numbers
  • Email addresses

As recruitment companies often have immense databases of basic information of this nature, Contact Management Software is a beneficial tool to aid in managing this information and to search contacts easily and efficiently.

It is also a way for businesses to safely centralize and store sensitive information, with no risk that it will be lost or stored on the computer of one employee.

In addition to preserving customer information, Contact Management Software provides support features such as contact note-taking, notifications reminding workers to complete assignments, and tagging that allows feedback about staff contacts.

The key function of Contact Management Software is to support staff in managing customer information, which makes it similar to CRM Software.

A cold desk is a term used to describe a professional environment where there is no existing recruitment network in place for a recruiter to work with.

In this instance, a recruitment consultant is faced with the challenge of setting up recruitment for business and establishing a stable network of job seekers looking for roles and clients looking to fill roles. See more on a recruitment consultant here.

The opposite of a cold desk is a hot desk, where a recruiting network is already in place by the time a recruiting manager is appointed to recruit.

A recruitment consultant working at a cold desk is expected to do further research to create a recruiting atmosphere to research and excel, but maybe more interested in dictating the types of candidates and clients for which they are going to work with.


Disciplinary action, often known as corrective action, is a mechanism intended to change and track inappropriate conduct or performance of workers when other approaches, such as therapy and performance evaluations, have not been effective. Examples of disciplinary action include written reprimand, temporary pay cut, performance improvement plan, suspension, demotion, and termination. In cases of serious misconduct, it is appropriate to proceed straight to disciplinary action.
A breach occurs if personal data is damaged, astrayed, changed, or if there is an unauthorised release of or exposure to personal data as a result of a breach of security. HR can mitigate the risk of security breaches by properly vetting candidates, accounting for equipment, training employees to identify and escalate potential issues or areas of the breach as well as building and cultivating a culture of compliance.

In the course of employment distinguishes negatively in relation to an employee on any of the aforementioned ground or grounds.

Direct placement is a recruiting procedure where a third-party agency is used to conduct accessible position hiring and administrative management procedures, including advertising the job, sourcing and evaluating resumes, screening, and applicant presentations. In situations of direct placement, when the top candidate is identified, interviewed and an offer is extended, the candidate is then hired by the employer, meaning they are a permanent employee of the employer, not the agency.
Discrimination occurs when either an employer declines to employ or continue to employ any person or in the course of employment, distinguishes adversely in relation to an employee due to the reason of the employee’s age , gender , race, colour , religion, national or ethnic origin, marital status , family status, sexual orientation , gender identity, disability, conviction for which a pardon has been issued.
Disability is a physical or mental condition that significantly affects one or more of the principal activities of life. A person with a disability can be defined as being disabled if they have a history or record of such an impairment, or if the person is perceived by others as having such an impairment.
Downsizing, often referred to as a layoff, is the process of reducing the size of an organisation’s workforce by terminating a certain percentage of its employee base. Organisations may use downsizing to help cut expenses while staying productive and successful. Employees being forced to quit also get paid with a fixed amount severance package or a salary of a few months. The downsizing after-effects may be particularly detrimental, as the remaining workers will be terrified to be in a similar circumstance at a later date.
A direct hire refers to a circumstance where a company that intends to hire a candidate renders them the job directly.

Companies may utilize the services of an employment agency to find the right candidate for a vacancy, but in a situation where a direct hire occurs, the company that is going to employ the candidate is the one that actually hires them. See more on employment agencies here. The candidate is an employee of the company that performed the direct hire, not the employment agency.

As a direct hire entails the recruiting company’s effort and commitment, direct hires are commonly made while fulfilling permanent positions, as opposed to temporary or contract-to-hire roles.


Employee retention is the corporate strategy of retaining existing staff and reducing turnover. A company may make efforts to encourage better retention rates for workers by encouraging employee engagement, cultivating a stable and welcoming ambiance, showing gratitude to workers, offering fair wages and benefits, and a healthier work/life balance.
An Early Return to Work program enables workers who are unable to perform their regular job duties due to injury or illness to return to work at temporary, reduced or light duty capacity whilst they regain their strength.
An employee referral program is an initiative run by an organisation to encourage its staff to refer people from their personal and professional networks who they believe would be suited to fill an internal vacant position. The program promotes the process of recommending potential applicants, including experiences, that may be monetary or otherwise. These programs are set up by HR and can be created using online referral platforms. Such software enables HR to automate the process whereby employees receive an email with links to the job posting that they can share on social media or via email.
E-learning is training and development delivered via the electronic methods. E-learning can provide training at a much lower cost than traditional approaches requiring physical space and facilities, which can help ensure organisational efficiency and adherence. One of the challenges of e-learning is ensuring the way the training is delivered is effective and that employees retain key information.
An entry level job is one that is usually filled by a fresh graduate or someone with minimal work experience. The role appears to be low-skilled and general in its duties but offers an opportunity for the employee to join a particular occupation’s career ladder and learn what it is like working in that sector or field. There have been discussions around the future of entry level positions and whether the use of robots will cause these roles to be non-existent. Such roles include cashier, lifeguard, delivery driver and waiter/waitress among others. This increases the competition for entry level roles with recent graduates struggling to find jobs after university.
Executive recruiters, often known as Executive Headhunters, are talent acquisition professionals that specialize in recruiting executive personnel such as senior managers, directors, and high-level corporate officers. Specializing in one or more sectors is normal for executive recruiters, and they may work individually or recruit firms.
Employment law comprises all areas of the employer/employee relationship except the negotiation process covered by labor law and collective bargaining. Employment law exists to govern the relationship between businesses and their employees. If a business is stable and adheres with employment law, hiring processes, dismissal processes and their workplace as a whole, then it is fair for each individual.
Employer brand refers to an organisation’s ability to recruit and retain existing and future workers. It reveals their employee value propositions and credibility as a preferred employer. Companies usually exhibit their appeal to their target group in diverse ways, from advertising on their website and using external channels, to employee advocacy via social media. Such indicators can be tracked with employer branding techniques to assess their effectiveness and adjusted based on their effectiveness in attracting the right type of job applicant. In a candidate poor market, it becomes imperative for companies to stand out amongst the competition. A website such as Glassdoor can now show the popularity of an organisation with employees able to provide a rating and commentary on what it’s like to work there. Eligible applicants will now get clear proof of what it is like to work in an organisation without relying exclusively on what is expressed during interviews.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions and the emotions of others. Leaders with high emotional intelligence may be able to comprehend their own emotions and see the effect on themselves and others. They may also have knowledge of their own gifts and shortcomings and possess a good sense of self-worth and of their own abilities. In general, successful emotionally intelligent leaders have the ability to perceive and behave optimistically, as well as the capacity to exploit opportunities to contribute to the common good.
An executive search is a career search that is conducted to find applicants to fill executive roles or other similar seniority positions.
This search is usually conducted by executive search firms on behalf of a third party company.

The advantage of an executive search being performed by an executive search firm is that the firm can undertake an initial screening of the candidate and confirm if they are suitable for the role and ascertain their remuneration expectations before putting them in touch with the company.

As executive searches seek highly skilled and suitable applicants, ideal candidates are often already working and are best approached by executive search firms to gather details about their interest in leaving their current position for a greater opportunity.

E-recruitment, or online recruitment refers to when the process of recruitment is conducted entirely online.
From advertising for a job to look for candidates to a successful candidate’s final selection, businesses also want to build candidates because it enables all processes involved to be simplified in one place online. E-recruitment is also called e-sourcing.

E-recruitment software such as JobAdder assists e-recruiting organisations by offering a fully integrated online recruitment program for applicants. One of the key benefits of e-recruitment is that all applicant information is safely stored and exchanged online, creating a centralized center of recruiting activity that can be accessed at any time from anywhere. Information is stored in such a way that it can also be retrieved at some future date, even if a long period elapses between the period a candidate collects data and the time when it is required for a role.

Conducting online recruitment also removes a lot of the manual labour that is traditionally associated with recruitment, such as printing candidate CV’s and storing them in different locations, only for them to be misplaced.

Employee Value Proposition, or EVP, refers to a suite of benefits and rewards that an organisation offers to their employees in return for making valuable contributions.

Examples of valuable employee contributions include expertise in lending, experience, awareness, and hard work to boost the bottom line of their company. Providing EVPs to workers is a way for businesses to promote good actions and offer opportunities for their employees to work diligently and aspire for success.

These incentives have the added benefit of increasing employee engagement. See more on employee engagement here.
EVPs are also associated with the philosophy and values of the company and can also be used as a tool for enhancing the company’s image and recruiting new talent and separating the company from its rivals.

Employee motivation is something companies strive to achieve amongst all of their employees.

Like employee engagement, highly motivated employees are committed to performing well and striving to achieve success for the benefit of themselves, their team, and their company. See more on employee engagement here.

The challenge for businesses is figuring out the best way to increase employee engagement and to sustain it. Moreover, companies can empower employees to be motivated by ensuring that employees are both valued and challenged and that they have to work towards practical professional objectives. This helps encourage enthusiasm among workers by giving employees a sense of mission and direction in their working lives.

Professional incentives such as bonuses and accolades also help to keep employees motivated and striving for success.

Executive coaching is a professional relationship between a trained coach and a client with the goal to enhance the client’s leadership or management performance and development. Also, executive coaching may help leaders effectively organize their work , work efficiently and be constructive rather than reactive when challenges arise.
Employee assessments can be an effective tool for managing employee performance. It can be accomplished pre-hire and post-hire and can add useful insight to corporate leadership and decision-making by doing so.
Employee self-service provides employees with access to their personal records and payroll details through a web-based application. Additionally, it also permits workers to change their own contact details, family members, and banking information and benefits – rather than submitting a request for a change to management or HR.
Employment history is the information presented by an applicant or employee detailing past employers of the person, dates of job, names of the positions held, and the duties and/or responsibilities they had throughout their career.
Equal Employment Opportunity is fair treatment in employment, promotion, training and other personnel actions without regard to race, color, religion, sex (which includes gender, sexual harassment, and pregnancy), age, national origin, reprisal (for prior EEO activity), physical or mental disability, genetic information, status as a parent and sexual orientation.
An exit interview is conducted by HR when an individual leaves a company. The interview provides the employee with an opportunity to express their reasons for leaving and provide input on their interaction with the company and its management. In fact, this meeting is supposed to be used by HR to determine whether the organisation needs to make changes or enhancements. It is a valuable resource for companies to minimize employee turnover and also reduce future lawsuits if concerns posed during the exit interview are properly addressed. All responses are expected to be taken in confidence and only conveyed directly to a member of staff on the approval of the existing employee.
A contract of employment is an agreement specifying terms and conditions under which a person consents to perform certain duties as directed by the employer in return for an agreed wage or salary. Furthermore, it can be oral or written, expressed or implied. The employee is under an obligation to perform his assigned duties to the best of his ability, in accordance with the contract. The employer, in effect, has a duty to shield the employee from harm or damage.
An Employee Assistance Program (EAP) is offered by an organisation to its employees to support them through a range of needs, from financial to health and emotional. The said program will cover a broad variety of benefits from discounts on items such as gym memberships and loans, to a hotline for dealing with and addressing personal problems. These issues can include but are not restricted to health, personal and professional relationships, abuse gambling, financial problems, disorders including PTSD and anxiety, depression, and legal. Employees can access these benefits via their intranet portal at any time.
Employee referral is a sourcing method used by recruiters whereby candidates are referred for an open position by existing employees using their personal networks. Some companies have a structured employee referral plan that rewards workers with a bonus or similar incentive to present individuals who they believe would be a good match for a job. The process may be as casual as emailing the hiring manager or may include directing prospective applicants to an employer portal to start the process. There are several benefits to including this approach to hiring as part of the overall process. These include a decrease in hiring time as well as associated costs. It can also potentially increase employee retention and also serve as a means of pre-screening candidates particularly for culture fit.
E-signature stands for an electronic signature that is used to sign online documents.

Signing documents with an e-signature is a simple and convenient alternative to being signed in person. In addition, using digital signatures enables companies to escape the conventional time period associated with turning paperwork around such as contracts for jobs.

E-signatures are safe and legally binding as long as they are done correctly.

Employment agencies are the linchpin of the recruitment sector and are often the first port of call for candidates looking for a new job.
The aim of an employment agency is to link companies looking to fill a vacancy with applicants who have the right skills for that vacant role. It is the goal of employment agencies to connect both parties when there is great synergy between a worker and an employer. Recruiters that work at employment agencies often get a fee for making this match successfully. See more on recruiters here.

Employment agencies have a wide network of both businesses and applicants and their strength lies in being able to arrange a match between the two where both parties are successful on an ongoing basis. Companies that do not have the internal recruiting resources will often try this employment agency expertise through RPO. See more on RPO here.

Employee turnover is the rate at which employees leave a company. Consequently, new employees are hired in order to replace them.
Ideally, a company should have a low turnover rate for its workers, which ensures that employees withdraw from the organisation on a fairly occasional basis. Indeed, a high rate of employee turnover can be expensive and complicated for a company.

If a company suffers from a high rate of employee turnover, they may be forced to pay employment agencies or executive search firms to manage the process of recruitment for them in order to fill the vacancy or vacancies. See more on employment agencies and executive search firms here and here.

When an organisation is willing to devote internal resources to replace workers that exit the business, hiring positions regularly and educating new employees that do not last long in the business is a costly investment of staff time and energy that could otherwise be spent in other areas of the company.

It is important for companies to be aware of their employee turnover rate and assess the causes of a high rate of employee turnover if they have one. Common causes are often low levels of employee engagement and employee motivation. See more on employee engagement and employee motivation here and here.

Employee engagement refers to the condition of how interested an employee is in their work, which is usually a reflection of how committed they are to the company as a whole.

Companies that invest in approaches to keep workers involved in their jobs on a regular basis usually receive the benefits of this investment through incorporating employee engagement concepts, as it feeds directly back into their company through their employees’ willingness to perform well.

Examples of employee engagement ideas include:

  • Instigating activities that strengthen the relationship between team members and allow them to work better together
  • Providing positive feedback to employees when they perform well, to incentivize them to keep doing so
  • Providing employees with training and mentoring on a consistent basis
  • Identifying an area of work that each employee is passionate about and providing them with the opportunity to excel in this area

Engaged employees are more likely to perform well compared to workers who are not engaged in their jobs. Employees who are highly engaged frequently possess a willingness to excel, not only for themselves but for the overall good of their business. By performing employee engagement surveys on a regular basis, organisations can be told first hand about rates of employee engagement.

The goal of these surveys is to obtain a truthful insight into how workers are engaged and why with a view to ascertaining successful ways of enhancing engagement.


Full Time Equivalent (FTE) refers to the ratio of the total compensated number of hours employed during a working week by the sum of working hours over the same period.Because of that, it is critical for companies to notice and help inform their budgets as part of their hiring quotas. FTE can be calculated annually (by multiplying the number of working hours per day by 5 days and then 52 weeks) or monthly (by dividing the total number by 173.33 hours).
A Freelance Worker is a person who works not for a corporation but for themselves. Though freelancers take on contract work for businesses and organisations, they are largely self-employed and generally are not long-term committed to a single employer.
Facebook Jobs is an extension of the platform for social media, Facebook. It also serves as a work board for employers and prospective applicants. Facebook Jobs allows employers to explicitly post jobs on their company website, run posts as advertising and recruit future workers.
Facebook recruitment is a tool utilized by recruiters to use the social media site to source and engage candidates. Recruitment using Facebook can be achieved directly by posting job advertisements on a company’s Facebook page. It can also be indirect through networking with others who access the company’s page through posts and comments. Recruiters would also be able to enter groups and chat informally with potential applicants. Finally, recruiters can create custom searches for candidates using specific search criteria including current job title, language is spoken and current or past company.
A fixed-term contract refers to a working arrangement that lasts only for a defined period of time between employee and employer. The contracts automatically end at the period noted in the contract and therefore doesn’t require any process to be initiated by either party. These contracts are mostly used during periods of absence of permanent staff including for maternity leave, illness, or injury or where the role is attached to a short-term project. Full and part time employees hired under a fixed-term contract are still entitled to paid leave.
Free employment boards refer to those job boards to which recruitment agencies and employers can post without risking a cost. These job boards permit recruiters to reach a large pool of candidates and are a good starting point for those with limited budgets. Advertising a job on any free job board follows a procedure similar to that for paying job boards. It begins with setting up an account, entering the work information including key qualifications, differentiation points, salary, and job description. Below is a list of free job boards to start with:
Full life cycle recruitment is a holistic approach to the acquisition of talent that covers every step of the hiring process. From the initial work request and intake session with the hiring leader to sourcing, screening, selecting, hiring, all the way to onboard.
Flexible work plans are job structures that require more scheduling flexibility for workers in the way they meet their positions’ obligations. A flexible work arrangement requires flexibility in the scheduling of working hours, versatility in the amount of worked hours and consistency in the position of jobs. Examples of flexible work programs are telecommuting, remote working, condensed workweeks, customized working hours, part-time positions, job sharing, and flexible vacation time.
Factor comparison is a statistical approach designed to rate job roles based on a factor breakdown and not the role as a whole. The purpose of factor comparison is to assign a financial value to the relative parts of and work position, that is to say the compensation provided for that part of the job.


Generation Y is the generation that follows Generation X, also referred to as Millennials, with birth years ranging from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. Many parents of this generation were “Baby Boomers,” thus making it the largest generation since the boomers. Millennials grew up in an increasingly online and socially networked, electronic-filled environment. They are the generation that has gained the most exposure in marketing and whose confidence has been argued for spilling over into the realms of privilege and narcissism.
The Glass Ceiling is an invisible barrier inside a hierarchy that prohibits women or minorities from achieving roles at the top level. It is an intangible yet true obstacle through which the next stage or degree of progression can be seen, but can not be achieved due to implicit discrimination by a segment of eligible and deserving workers.
The Gender Pay Gap or Gender Wage Gap is the dissimilarity between the amounts of money paid to women and men, mostly for doing the same job. Studies were performed globally on the Gender Wage Gap and concluded that women are usually compensated less than men.
Generation Z is the generation who reached adulthood in the second decade of the 21st century, perceived from a very young age to be familiar with the Internet. Those known as Generation Z were born in the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s, and are also considered to be the most connected and trained generation ever.
A generalist recruiter is one that is hired through multiple sectors and locations for a wide variety of positions. Unlike specialist recruiters, generalists are able to operate on a number of positions and appear to be able to choose from a wide range of applicants. They may face a challenge to clients who want someone with advanced knowledge of a particular industry or job with a different skill set.

A group interview is a stage in the hiring process whereby applicants are interviewed in groups for a given role and evaluated simultaneously. It is an opportunity for hiring managers to gauge which candidates stand out and how they interact with each other in a competitive environment. A group interview can also speed up the hiring process and encourage businesses to incorporate additional elements into the interview process that would not be provided by one-on-one interviews, a role-play for instance. An alternative version of a group interview is one where a candidate is interviewed by a panel which may consist of the role’s manager along with the hiring manager and other stakeholders.

Generation X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials, approximately those born in the early 1960s to late 1970s. Compared to other generations, Generation X is oftentimes overlooked by advertisers and expected to be better off financially than Millennials.


The Hiring Period commences when an employer offers a job to a candidate. This lasts until that person has accepted, started in the position and adjusted to the job and company culture.
The Hiring Process refers to the steps wherein applications are evaluated, identified, and trained, applicants interviewed and then the hiring decision made. Several companies often require recruited employees to undergo background checks and other pre-employment inspections.

The Hawthorne effect refers to the tendency of individuals, including participants in an experiment, to work harder and perform better when they are being watched or given attention.

The hiring funnel is a graphic illustration of the hiring and recruitment process. The recruiting funnel consists of four main steps: finding applicants, encouraging them to apply, assessing them for the firm, and finally accepting a job offer.
A hiring workflow is a series of steps carried out by a recruiter across the hiring process.The workflow involves the precise jobs needed and by whom and how long each task is likely to take. It will change depending on the position that is being carried out and who needs to be involved in it. For example, the workflow for hiring an administrator would differ greatly from that of a software engineer or a CEO.
The term hidden job market applies to those positions which are not listed online or otherwise advertised. These jobs are found primarily through personal contacts, for example, word-of-mouth or referrals to employees. With the recruiting process proving to be lengthy and a costly process for some employers, they choose to circumvent this and rely on other sources as noted earlier. Other reasons for not making a publicly recognized position available may include choosing to keep hiring decisions secret before an official announcement can be made, such as with the opening of a new office.
A head hunter is a person who specialises in recruiting candidates to fill specific vacancies.
The aspect that separates a headhunter from a normal recruiter is that they search for highly skilled applicants to fill specific positions. As the skills they possess are valuable and in high demand, this method, therefore, involves poaching or “headhunting” candidates from an established position.

In comparison to opening the job for recruiting consultants to hire for, the aim of hiring a headhunter to find an applicant in this way is to locate and secure the best person for the position instead of going through all the recruiting steps.

A company may find that they have a particularly involved recruitment process if they were to advertise for the kind of job a headhunter is engaged to fill due to the fact that this kind of role is often highly desirable and would attract a large number of applications.
On many occasions, a company will be aware of the candidate they would like a headhunter to approach. It is not possible or necessary to headhunt for many roles within a company.

The goals and expected results of headhunting are identical to those of an executive search, which is conducted to identify applicants with a certain degree with seniority. See more on an executive search here.

Human Resource Management is the systematic approach to handling people efficiently within an enterprise in order to help the company achieve a competitive edge.
The Hiring Team includes all persons involved in the process of recruitment, interviewing, and selection.
A hiring manager is a person within a company that asks applicants for particular positions to be filled and to whom the hired candidate will report. With the assistance of internal talent teams or external agency recruiters, they assess the suitability of screened candidates and interview them, before making a final hiring decision. In addition, agency recruiters are able to make use of our Hiring Manager platform to effectively connect with the hiring managers, providing greater exposure in the recruiting process.
Human Capital Management is a series of strategies that concentrate on corporate need to have specialized skills. They are applied in three categories: job creation, talent management, and talent optimisation.

Human Capital Management plays an important role in hiring, managing, training, and retaining talented and high performing employees.

Hourly pay defines a rate that a worker chooses to pay per hour worked. Employees who are paying an hourly rate must be charged at or more than the minimum wage.
A company employs a Headhunter to locate, review and promote appropriate applicants that meet unique job-position criteria.
HR software is software that enables teams and individuals working in Human Resources to carry out the tasks involved in their roles more efficiently.

Modern software for human resources is highly versatile and can accommodate a wide variety of features and marketplaces. An organisation or small business size and requirements may determine the form of HR software ideally suited to them.

For businesses of all sizes, HR software helps manage and improve the workflow of HR staff by automating a lot of the manual administrative tasks associated with their roles such as completing payroll and benefits administration.

Through streamlining processes such as monitoring candidates, arranging payments, and documenting payments internally, HR systems are allowing people to work together better.

It is particularly critical to Human Resources teams that support a large number of employees in big organisations.
It also incorporates features like timesheet management and attendance that is very useful to businesses with a workforce composed of both permanent and contingent workers or staff working in shifts.

Increasing efficiency, HR software helps workers to devote more time to activities such as hiring, training, and improving employee engagement.

As well as automated task execution, HR software supports teams with these strategic components of Human Resources.
From talent development and talent management through to performance evaluations, these software tools can help HR departments navigate an employee’s full end-to-end journey through their companies.

A hot desk is a term used to describe a recruitment environment that is already established for a recruiter.

This usually means that there is already a system in place and a database of candidates and clients for the recruitment consultant to work with. See more on a recruitment consultant here.

In this situation, it is not appropriate for the recruiter to be as concerned with the fundamentals of setting up a recruitment company and to concentrate on developing and growing the recruitment network at hand.

The alternative to a hot desk is a cold desk, an atmosphere in which no recruiting network exists for a recruiter to work with. See more on a cold desk here.


An Informational Interview is a discussion where a prospective job seeker asks for guidance on a career path, the business, and the organizational culture of a possible future place of work.
An Intake Meeting is an interaction between the hiring manager and the recruiter during the initial phase of a recruitment process. Intake meetings are useful as they help recruiters minimise back-and-forth and miscommunication, and clearly define the criteria of a job.
The interview process can vary from recruiter to recruiter and even in-house, depending on their complexity and certainly by positions. Most frequently an interview process involves an initial screening interview followed by a second or even a third interview before finding references and making a work offer.

If an applicant applies for a position through an organisation, then a pre-interview screening is performed by the recruiter to decide if they are appropriate for the job beyond what their resume suggested.

The next interview is then performed by the hiring manager at the organisation they are hoping to work at, and another interview with senior executives, if the position needs it. Interviews can be either one-on-one or conducted in a group with other candidates or with a panel.

Internal recruiting is where the company searches at its own employees to fill the vacancy. Internal recruitment will boost the morale of staff and save business expenses from training and onboarding.
An Interview Scorecard is a method used by interviewing managers to determine the responses of applicants to interview questions. Usually, interview scorecards are set such that the interviewer assigns a numerical value for each question to represent the relative quality of the candidate’s response.
In-house refers to an HR team division which hires and onboards employees for the organisation they work in. Generally, such teams are located in large multinational companies and can save businesses the expense and need to outsource the recruiting process. In certain cases, in-house HR teams partner with external organizations to fill large numbers of positions or responsibilities that are hard to fill. The term may also refer to a search to fill vacancies by in-house promotion of the position.
An Internal Recruiter is a talent management specialist who is hired by the hiring and recruiting organisation. Responsibility for internal recruiters can involve defining current and potential recruiting needs, advertising job openings, and developing employee referral systems.
Interim recruitment refers to recruitment based on the temporary provision within an entity of individuals with unique experience or skills.
An Independent Contractor is an individual or organisation that is hired as a non-employee to do work or to provide services to another organisation.


A Job Posting is an advertisement for an open place within an organisation. You can view a job application online on company career sites, public work boards, social media or they can be physically posted and/or personally delivered to the applicant by the hiring leader or recruiter.
A Job Offer Letter is a structured written document sent to a prospective employee by an employer containing the specifics of their jobs ( i.e., base pay, eligibility for benefits, and designated manager for the employee).
A Job Search Engine is a specialized platform that aggregates job listings from various job boards and career pages for the employer.
A jobseeker is someone who is unemployed at the moment and seeking employment. Jobseekers will fall into one of three categories: those who actively pursue jobs, those who keep an eye on the job market for any prospects worth pursuing, and finally those who are content in their positions and do not look at them in any way whatsoever.
A Job Advert is an advertisement that tells potential applicants that there is a job open inside the organisation. A job advertisement usually includes job requirements as well as information about the employer, including rewards and benefits.
A Job Requisition is a document used to apply for a position, explain why it is needed, and decide the available budget for the role. Hiring managers complete a work request when they wish to establish a new position or replenish a current vacant role.
Job description refers to a document that is posted to either a job advertising site or a career page of a company to describe a position that the company wants to fill. The job description sets out what the candidate’s position entails, and the qualifications and training they need to have. It can also include working conditions, compensation, and the individual to whom the position will report. Writing a job description can be a tedious process, particularly when writing out several versions. This time-intensive task can be cut by using work description templates.
A job board aggregator is a search engine that brings together multiple job boards to allow for fast searches without having to visit different pages. These search engines put together work posts from a number of sources including, among others, job boards, newspaper career pages, university websites, recruiter sites, and business career pages.

The downside is that there is a propensity to click through duplicates because jobs can be posted on multiple sites to increase views. Indeed and LinkedIn are among the more well-known work board aggregators.

A job board is an online outlet to fill vacancies for an employer and in-house recruiters to post job adverts. It is also the location where job-seekers will go looking for work and applying for positions. Many job boards need payment but there are plenty of free work boards worth exploring. Some well-known job boards include (US) LinkedIn, Glassdoor, Indeed (AU) Seek, Jora, Careerone (NZ) Google for Jobs, Jobfeed, Job Monster (UK) Total Jobs, Reed, Monster.
Job requirements apply to the education, work experience, and skills necessary to the position of the individual. Recruiters and hiring managers use job criteria to pick applicants and eventually choose the recruit final.
Job Hopper refers to a person after one to two years of employment who has a history of changing companies. The decision to take new positions is of one’s own will rather than as a result of a layoff or closing of the company.


A Key Performance Indicator or KPI is a formative component of the position of an employee that needs to be well performed in order for the employee to excel and develop in the position. It is known as a KPI since it is an aspect that can assess and evaluate the performance of an employee.

In the context of their team or competitive environment, KPI’s are determined in order to quantify how well an individual or company is performing holistically.

After a placement has been completed, a worker will usually return to their usual place of work ideally with insight to bring to their role or business.

KPI’s for individuals and companies include: Volume of sales

Keywords apply to the jargon or mouthpieces used by professionals or business experts. Candidates can use keywords to find positions that fit their past experience and expertise and recruiters can use them to find ideal profiles of candidates.
KSA means Knowledge, Skills, and Experience
Knowledge mapping provides a visual representation of what knowledge exists were and to demonstrate the patterns of the flow of knowledge.


Leadership Development refers to practices that strengthen leadership skills, abilities, and trust. Coaching and mentoring are forms of leadership development.
Labour Costs applies to the amount of all salaries paid to workers as well as the cost of health insurance and the employer’s payroll tax.
Recruitment by LinkedIn is the method of using the social media site as a source for candidates. Employers and recruiters from companies can post positions directly to LinkedIn, and applicants can apply for roles directly on the web. LinkedIn is also a great tool that allows recruiters to share open roles and promote referrals using their networks. In addition, recruiters can use LinkedIn’s search facilities to use keywords and cross-referencing to find suitable candidates using the details in candidate profiles. LinkedIn groups are also a valuable resource for recruiters, enabling them to communicate with potential workers in person.
Loyalty Programs are reward-based systems designed to encourage employee engagement and loyalty through performance monitoring and recognition like perfect attendance for the whole month or entire year of no absentees or late from work.
Learning Management Software and Systems are software programs that are used for managing, monitoring, recording, reporting, and implementing schooling, training, or learning and development programmes.

A Learning Management System or LMS is a system put in place to support the delivery of learning and educational software to users.

Not only does Learning Management Systems allow an organisation to transfer learning content to its employees, but LMS software also has interactive features that allow users to input knowledge they learn while they learn it, providing a more personalized and efficient learning experience.

Examples of the type of learning materials delivered to users via LMS include:

  • Training Modules
  • Online Courses and Tutorials
  • Educational Material

LMS lets businesses monitor, record, and report user interaction. This is especially useful as businesses need to pass compulsory training manuals to large numbers of workers, such as OH&S materials, to ensure that all employees are presented to understand.


Mentoring is a semi-structured support method in which one person shares his or her expertise, skills , and experience to help another advance in their own lives and careers.
The Myers – Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire that demonstrates varying psychological biases in how people view and make choices about the environment around them. Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers designed The MBTI.
Minimum Wage is the lowest compensation a company can legally pay for its workers.
Mobile recruitment is a means by which recruiters may attract, interact, and convert applicants via smartphone. This can include mobile job sites and applications, texting across common networks like Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn as a means of communication and social recruitment. Recruiters cite this approach as a prime opportunity with mobile being the dominant mode of communication over desktop and text messages being opened at greater levels than email. The method of recruiting mobile recruitment candidates can also refer to the use of cloud technology such as JobAdder’s platform with a recruiter app to handle the end-to-end hiring process on the go.
Micromanagement is a style of management characterised by close monitoring of a subordinate or by regulation. Micromanagement is commonly seen as having a negative connotation, primarily because it indicates a lack of independence in the workplace.
Millennials, also known as Generation Y, were the generation following Generation X, with birth years spanning from the early 1980s through the early 1990s. Many of this generation’s parents were “Baby Boomers” making it the biggest generation after the boomers. Millennials grew up in an increasingly online and socially networked, electronic-filled environment. They are the generation that has gained the most exposure in marketing and whose confidence has been argued for spilling over into the realms of privilege and narcissism.
Multiposting refers to the process of posting one job on multiple different job sites.
Managed Service Provider (MSP) is an organisation that operates the IT’s infrastructure or end-user services of a client remotely, usually proactively and under a subscription model.
MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) is a platform for offering online learning material to everyone who wants to take a course, with no enrollment restrictions.
A Mock Interview or practice interview is a simulation of a real work interview. A mock interview can be a valuable method for learning and perfecting interviewing skills.


Negotiation is a discussion between two or more parties to come to an agreement on a matter such as pay , benefits, timetable or other conditions of employment.
Nepotism is a type of discrimination in which members of the family or friends are employed for reasons that have little to do with their qualifications, expertise or abilities.
A Nondisclosure Agreement (NDA) is a legally binding arrangement in which an individual agrees to handle confidential details as a trade secret and not reveal it without appropriate authorization to others.
A Non-Compete Agreement is a deal between an employee and an employer where the employee promises not to compete with the employer before or after the job. A non-competitive arrangement forbids workers from joining industries or occupations which are deemed directly in competition with the employer.


Outbound Hiring is a targeted, candidate-focused approach that coordinates customised talent acquisition and business efforts to recruit top talent.
An Open Job Interview is an interview in which businesses accept job applications during a specified range of times when all applicants interested in applying can attend.
On-target earnings refer to the money received by an employee (usually someone who works in Sales) when they meet those goals. In addition to their base pay, this compensation is based on how many transactions they close, lead generated or some similar measure an employer puts in place.
OH&S (Occupational Health & Safety) is a multidisciplinary area that is concerned with people’s protection, safety, wellbeing and welfare at work.
An offer letter or letter of a work offer is one sent to a good candidate by an employer after the interview, offering them the position. The letter of offer may include certain elements such as the work title and summary, compensation and any related benefits, reporting structure and start date, as well as somewhere for the applicant to sign in acceptance. After a successful second or subsequent job interview, a work offer letter is either sent out or sent by email. Candidates are typically given a fixed time to respond to the work offer.
Onboarding is the term used to describe the process of bringing a new staff member on board at a new place of work.

This process includes completing all the necessary paperwork and steps involved in training the employee to start work, as well as ensuring that on the first day and beyond, they are well assimilated into the business. Examples of onboard documents include a Letter of Bid, a Tax File Declaration Form, and a Superannuation Form for Employees.

Unlike recruiting, which is concerned with finding the best applicant for a work vacancy, onboarding occurs after successfully securing the applicant.

Onboarding duties rest with the employer and as such, the process may be an opportunity for the new staff member to make a positive first impression of their business.

On the spot interview is an interview which is performed immediately after a work application has been submitted.
Orientation provides important information to new employees about their office, facilities, pay, benefits, and dress code. An effective orientation will set up recruits for success, incorporate them into the corporate culture, and be a useful tool for retention.
Outsourcing is the corporate method of employing an outside party to provide services and produce products that the company’s own staff typically produced in-house.
Offer Management relates to the process from the time an applicant meets to when the recruiting committee makes a decision on a bid. Proper management of the bid will help retain top talent and effective recruiting practices in an organisation.
Outplacement refers to the processes and procedures involved in helping a job seeker whose employment has been terminated by a former employer to secure a new job.

In addition, its placement services are provided by a specialist third party company and the costs of a job seeker using their services are usually covered by the job seeker’s former employer that terminated their employment.

People can need outplacement services if they make a job change and need expertise from the industry to help them reach a new sector. It can also be if they have difficulty re-entering the workforce after leaving a business due to unexpected circumstances.

The aim of outplacement firms is to ease this phase of change for candidates by offering services such as work interview preparation, career coaching, and helping candidates develop their curriculum vitae and LinkedIn profiles. As well as practical guidance, outplacement agencies offer career counseling assistance for workers who may have lost their employment due to attrition or their former company’s downsizing.


Purple Unicorn is a term used to describe a profile of candidates that holds the skills and experiences that are considered to be so unique, that they are almost mythical.
Pipelining is a strategic recruiting technique that speeds up the process of selection and hiring by finding appropriate applicants before they become needed.
Typically, a pre-screening or screening interview is performed by a member of the HR team or an agency recruiter to screen applicants prior to the main interview to determine who can be put forward. It also offers a recruiter or HR representative an opportunity to get to know the applicants better and to assess their cultural fitness. This interview can be conducted either in person or by telephone and increasingly, by video. Pre-screening interview questions typically cover the awareness of the applicant about the organisation they’ve applied to their ideal work environment and their salary expectations.
Typically, a panel interview is where two or more interviewers interview a nominee at the same time. It is seen as a successful way of determining an applicant’s suitability without having to make them return several times, thus speeding up the hiring process. It also helps interviewees to gauge the candidate’s ability to withstand pressure and ultimately to ensure that the hiring decision is mutually acceptable. The interviewer asks candidates for at least one question while quick-fire questions are not uncommon.
A performance appraisal is a structured method that measures the job performance and efficiency of an employee in relation to pre-established requirements and organisational goals.
Payroll Software is used to manage and streamline the process of making payments to employees.

Companies use Payroll Software to automate such things as calculating payments, withholding tax, and depositing monthly payments into the designated bank account of employees.

When the standard payment information for an employee is inserted into the software system such as their wages, the number of hours they work a week, and details of their bank account and minimal maintenance is required.

The benefit of using Payroll Software is that it relieves accounting workers from many of the administrative duties involved with making employee salaries, which otherwise would be very time consuming. It also eliminates instances of human error-induced mistakes.
Companies with a large number of employees rely heavily on Payroll Software and on its reporting features.

The word placement is often used to refer to the effective assigning of an individual to a job. A placement can also apply to a worker’s temporary posting at a workplace that is not normally his own.

Placements occur for a fixed and limited time span negotiated between the employer and the worker. Unlike temporary employment, the aim of this kind of placement is typically to provide the worker with an opportunity to learn more from a new work environment or to contribute something to that environment for a given period of time.

After a placement has been completed, a worker will usually return to their usual place of work ideally with insight to bring to their role or business.

Personality Tests-Psychometric Tests are also used as part of the recruiting process to determine the level of intellect, abilities, and personality of an applicant as relating to the work.
A preferred list of suppliers (PSL) is a list of the recruiters that businesses want to work with. Only agencies that are on this list can supply resumes via the online system of the organization. Other agencies that submit resumes are considered unsolicited and will not be accepted. Recruitment agencies may apply to be on the PSL for an organisation that is traditionally contractually dependent. Companies have many reasons to use a preferred supplier list for cost savings or whether they are in an area of high turnover.
Pre-Employment Testing is an objective and systematic means of collecting applicant data during the hiring process. Testing for pre-employment may involve checking cognitive ability, expertise , skills, physical and motor skills , attitude, emotional intelligence, language skills and even honesty.
Performance Management is an ongoing collaboration mechanism between manager and employee to facilitate the accomplishment of the organisation’s strategic goals.
A Preferred Supplier Agreement or PSA is an agreement entered into by a company and one of their third party suppliers.
Typically, this arrangement is formalised with a contract that specifies the relationship between the two parties, generally for the parties’ intent of working closely together on an ongoing basis under certain terms that favor both parties. Typically, a PSA is instigated by the organisation that nominates one of its suppliers to work directly within order to procure those products or services, since they believe that it is the best supplier to purchase them.

In committing to a PSA, a company usually forgoes working with alternative suppliers in direct competition with the supplier for the PSA which is beneficial for the supplier. In exchange for this, the supplier usually offers their goods or services to the company they have entered into a PSA with at a discounted rate or provides them under some preferential conditions.

Preferred Supplier Agreements have terms built into the contract of when the agreement will come to an end and be reassessed.

This also helps the supplier to provide high-quality service to the business. If a firm decides not to renew its PSA with its supplier, this creates openings for other suppliers to compete for the company’s business.

A passive candidate is a candidate who is not actively seeking out a new job.

As they are usually happily employed and not looking for work, it’s likely that the passive candidate is a valued employee making worthwhile contributions to their current place of work.

Sourcing and effectively placing a passive candidate in a work position allows a recruiting specialist to be strategic in order to persuade them to seek a new job when they are not already involved in the job market.

Social media is a great platform to reach passive candidates who wouldn’t otherwise visit job websites.



A Recruitment Plan is a method used to locate, test and employ, using timelines and target setting as well as proper market analysis.
A Retention Strategy is an organisation-developed plan aimed at minimizing employee turnover and attrition, and ensuring workers are motivated and profitable over the long term.
Recruitment Workflow is a diagram that charts the progression of the recruitment process, beginning with the receipt of a job request and concluding with the newly hired employee embarking on it.
Reputation Management is the process of striving to influence an organisation’s public image by manipulating online information.
Recruiting Software is a human resource management category that handles the process of posting jobs and attracting talent to vacancies within an organisation.
Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, choosing, interviewing and recruiting professional work applicants within an organisation.
Recruitment Marketing refers to the techniques and methods a company uses to identify, retain, engage and develop talent before applying for a job, often referred to as the pre-applicant process of talent acquisition.
A recruiting consultant or recruiter is a specialist who links candidates seeking positions with businesses needing applicants to fill vacancies.
Recruiters typically work out of employment agencies that specialise in finding and filling jobs in one or many specific sectors of the workforce. See more on employment agencies here. This kind of recruiter is known as an agency recruiter.

The alternative form of recruiter known as an in-house recruiter is one that hires specifically for positions within the organisation they work for. This latter form of recruiter specializes in seeking applicants for positions if there are vacancies.

In their defined field of expertise effective recruiting consultants create a network of companies and candidates.

As recruiting consultants are expected to deal with vast volumes of data on a regular basis including all of this candidate’s records and contact details, recruitment software such as JobAdder allows recruitment professionals to more efficiently and effectively execute the full end-to-end recruitment process.

Recruitment Process Outsourcing or RPO refers to a situation where a company outsources a part or all of its recruitment activities to a third-party company to manage on their behalf.

RPO is similar to BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) and is often done by a corporation for the same purposes, either to save on recruiting costs or to obtain the technological experience required for recruiting, which is not readily available internally. See all about Outsourcing company methods here.

RPO is typically needed when there is a sudden spike in the demand for workers to work on a specific project, and it would be inefficient and expensive to raise the internal HR team to accommodate this temporary demand.

Companies remove their resources from the logistical and transactional duties associated with recruiting by outsourcing recruiting, allowing those resources to devote their attention to other business areas.

A reference check takes place when an employer interviews former employers, educators, instructors, or coaches and other outlets of a job applicant to learn more about their work experience , educational background, and job qualifications.

Recruiting metrics is a term used to refer to all indicators that an agency uses to assess recruiting success and is a way to improve recruiting. Metrics can encompass a broad range including:

  • Time to Fill
  • Offer acceptance rate
  • Hire to goal
  • quality of hire
  • cost per hire
  • diversity hiring metrics
  • retention rates
  • client calls
  • client meetings
  • new roles
  • total roles
  • active candidates
  • recruiter/candidate interviews
  • CVs submitted
  • first client interviews
  • second client interviews
  • Offers
  • placements
  • commission
  • Qualified candidates per post
  • sourcing channel efficiency
  • adverse impact
  • candidate experience
  • number of interviews per candidate
Redundancy happens when an employer is reducing the employees because a job/s are no longer needed.
Recruiter Performance is measured by the time it takes to employ suitable applicants, including assessment of the efficacy of the recruiter in sourcing candidates and the pace and efficiency of their interview process.
Resume Parsing refers to the conversion, through hiring software, of free-form resume documents into organised information that results in suitable storing, reporting and manipulation.
A Resume is a document produced by a job seeker detailing their history, abilities and achievements.
Recruitment Automation helps organisations to automate recruitment activities and workflows to maximise the efficiency of recruiters, boost time-to-fill, reduce the cost-per-hire and enhance their organisation’s overall talent profile.
A Recruitment Management System or RMS is a system designed for the intent of assisting and overseeing the entire recruiting process from end-to-end and from work order through to a candidate’s final placement.

Recruiting management systems to offer recruitment tools that are used by internal HR agencies and recruitment firms and are also referred to as recruitment software only. RMS also has numerous titles including ATS, E-Recruiting Software, Recruiting Systems, and Staffing Software, among others. The variations in those names exist depending on where the word is used in the world and on the RMS itself ‘s various features.

There are a number of key components that usually constitute a full Recruitment Management System. These are:

  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Job Posting
  • Application Tracking Software
  • Reporting
Retained recruitment is a type of recruitment performed for a company by a recruitment agency on a retained and ongoing basis.

Additionally, for the recruitment agency concerned, retained recruitment is perceived to be a more stable method of recruitment, as their mandate is not contingent on whether they fill individual placements. Retained recruiting is conducted by an organisation on the premise that retained recruitment consultants can regularly send to them a higher-caliber group of applicants and offer more appropriate placements overall than their peers and contingent recruiters. Tap here for more on contingent hires.

Retained recruitment agencies may request a flat upfront fee for their services but they must still assist the organisation they hire with filling vacancies, no matter how lengthy and complicated the process may be.


Superannuation is a corporate pension scheme for the benefit of its employees established by a corporation.
Skills Gaps is the disparity between skills that employers want or need and existing labor or market skills.
Social Recruiting is the method of selecting applicants using social media as a potential pool or for advertising purposes.
Sponsored Job Postings are online work ads that require the employer to pay a fee per applicant or set a regular, weekly, or monthly schedule for applicants to be available. Jobs may be supported on social media networks, work boards, and other sites related to the industry.
Six Sigma is a series of management strategies designed to optimise business processes by considerably minimizing the risk of a mistake or defect from occurring.
Staffing is the ongoing process of defining, recruiting, reviewing, and establishing a working relationship with existing or potential workers. Staffing is similar to recruiting; but for particular tasks, staffing usually refers to filling short-term positions or hiring.
Salary is a fixed regular payment made by an employer to an employee usually paid on a monthly or biweekly basis but often represented as an annual amount.
Social Networking is the practice of expanding business relations via individual connections, often through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.
SMSF (Self Managed Superannuation Fund) is a superannuation trust scheme that offers benefits to its members upon retirement. The distinction between an SMSF and other forms of funds is that generally speaking, the SMSF members are actually the trustees meaning that the SMSF members administer it for their own benefit.
Split Placement refers to the recruitment of two recruiters, usually third parties, who work together to help a client find the best candidate possible.
A Specialist Recruiter is responsible for selecting and recruiting applicants for positions that require specialised skills or technical skills.
Succession planning is the procedure of recognising and improving workers so that they can step seamlessly into the organisation’s higher-level leadership positions.
Strategic Hiring is the systematic method of making decisions about recruitment, recruiting and organisational preparation that are consistent with business needs and business priorities.
Suspension refers to the situation in which an employee is sent home from work typically at full pay. Employers are allowed to fire an employee until the sexual misconduct or other significant disciplinary matters are resolved.
Soft skills are highly sought after by organisations , particularly for leadership roles, as they are a combination of people’s abilities, social skills , communication skills, characteristics of character or personality, attitudes, job qualities, social intelligence, and emotional intelligence.


Talent Brand is the social, public version of the employer brand of a business that represents what talent thinks , feels and expresses about the business as a place to work.
Team-building is a mechanism that strengthens working interactions and establishes team roles, often involving collaborative work. After conducting team-building exercises, workers understand each other’s strengths, limitations, and goals better, which in turn allows them to work together more efficiently and effectively.
Time to Fill is a statistic used to calculate how many days it takes from submitting a work request to accepting an offer. Time To Fill is also used to measure the efficacy and efficiency of the recruiters of a company.
A Talent Network is a community of people with similar technical abilities and/or work within the same industry.
Twitter Recruiting is a talent management activity that uses Twitter, the social media channel, to attract applicants, network with talent and promote the brand of jobs for the company.
Talent Sourcing is a method of creating candidate traffic, identifying and networking with prospects who ultimately seek to turn individuals into candidates or to provide additional referrals.
Talent means any person or pool of active or passive applicants.
Talent management refers to the commitment of an organisation in their workers in order to optimise their success and ability.
Talent management starts by effectively hiring the right people through the acquisition of talent. Recruitment is often used interchangeably for the term talent acquisition. However, talent development is a term that is used more commonly as part of the overall job PR and brand strategy for a business in a corporate context. Incorporating the word ‘talent’ into the title alludes to the fact that when recruiting new employees, businesses do not merely aim to fill gaps within their departments, but they pursue strategic opportunities for their workforce.

Talent management involves the strategic placement of these resources in the right area of the company to increase sales and ROI, as well as to improve the operational function of teams and to raise the overall standard and quality of work.

A company’s talent can be managed well by keeping employees engaged and motivated, ensuring that employees have realistic KPI’s to strive towards achieving and also have the right amount of support and competitive motivation to keep them goal-oriented toward success. See more on KPI’s here.

On an executional level, talent management involves implementing regular performance reviews, providing mentoring and training to staff, and creating opportunities for employees to be adequately rewarded and compensated for hard work.

Temp-to-Hire describes a situation where a worker is employed for a temporary period, sometimes 3-6 months, and then the employee is qualified for a full time position at the end of that period.
Transferable Skills refers to the skills or abilities that can be used in different positions or professions, such as communication and problem solving.
Turnover refers to the proportion of workers leaving a company and being replaced by new ones. Measuring employee turnover can help companies recognise and analyse deeper problems with their culture or employment processes as well as help assess recruiting costs for budget purposes.
Time in Lieu requires an employee to work overtime.So, instead of being paid extra remuneration for that overtime work, their employer gives the employee time off work, the equivalent of the overtime worked.

The method of finding and hiring the best candidates is called talent acquisition. In comparison to recruiting, talent management appears to concentrate on long-term human resources preparation and identifying suitable applicants for roles requiring a very particular set of skills.

A Talent Pool is a collection of applicants seeking to work for a company.

A Talent Pipeline is a pool of applicants ready to fill a role. The selection may be workers who are prospects for promotion, or external applicants who are prequalified partially or entirely to fill a vacancy.

Temping agencies also known as temporary agencies are recruiting firms specialised in finding jobs for applicants seeking temporary work and filling vacancies for businesses seeking temporary employment.

Being the intermediary that connects candidates and companies, temp agencies are similar to employment agencies. See more on employment agencies here.

Companies sometimes seek temporary staff to be employed on a project-by-project basis during busy periods.

Similarly, candidates use temping agency resources while they are searching for a limited amount of time to operate. While there is no assurance that a temporary role will be converted to a permanent role, there is a possibility in certain cases for an organisation to convert a temporary position to a permanent one if all parties agree that there is enough work to warrant permanently hiring the temporary employee.

Temping agencies are also referred to as staffing agencies typically in the United States wherein they specialise in sourcing staff to fill temporary roles.


An Unstructured Interview is an interview with no particular collection of predetermined questions. Unstructured interviews are intended to act like a normal conversation and have a tendency to be more casual and accessible.


A Vendor Management System is a web-based program that provides organisations with the ability to manage and procure temporary or permanent employment staffing services, as well as foreign contract or contingent labor.
A Video Interview is a remotely performed work interview that uses video technology as a means of contact. Two forms of video interviews are available: one-way and live video interviews. Usually, video interviews are conducted as a preliminary interview but the final hiring decision is not taken until later in the process.


The War for Talent refers to a more dynamic market for hiring and retaining skilled workers.




Jobscouts Is Simplifying Recruitment

Jobscouts provides affordable, cloud-based recruitment software that enhances and simplifies the recruitment process.
Currently enabling more than 10,000 recruiting professionals in over 30 countries around the world to recruit smarter and better, Jobscouts’s extensive reach places it at the heart of the recruitment process.

By integrating a diverse mix of social media channels, advertising platforms, and job boards, Jobscouts allows recruiting professionals to target more candidates than ever each time a job ad is posted.

In a nutshell, we provide easy to use, streamlined recruitment software. Our product is crystal clear, but you wouldn’t be blamed for getting your BPO confused with your RPO.

Take a peek at our very own Jobscouts glossary, dedicated to debunking all recruitment-related terminology!

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